Recently, the demand for alternative sources of energy has increased after realizing the disadvantages of fossil energy sources, such as: oil and coal that pollute the environment and cause global warming, as they are vulnerable to penetration after a period of consumption. Solar energy is one of the sources of renewable energy; that is, it is inaccessible, as the sun shines every morning and provides us with the light and warmth we need. Also, solar energy can be exploited using the solar cells that convert the sun's rays into electrical energy that can be used in Many domains.
The solar cell converts the solar energy into electrical energy based on a phenomenon called the effect of photovoltaic light. The solar cells are often built from semiconducting silicon crystals, and some impurities such as phosphorous are added to them to improve their ability to conduct electricity. When the sun’s rays fall onto the silicon crystals, they absorb them. They stimulate the electrons that are bound together by covalent bonds to liberation, and begin to move randomly within the silicon crystal, which generates an electric current and one of the most common types of solar cells.